History of GST


The Geological Survey was established in 1925 by the British Overseas Management Authority (BOMA) administration under the name of Geological Survey Department (GSD) as an independent governmental department. The primary objective was to speed up development of mineral resources of the Tanganyika Territory. In April 1926, the headquarters of GSD was set up in Dodoma by the first director, Dr. E.O.Teale. The main assignment of the GSD was to provide geological information acquired through geological mapping and reconnaissance mineral exploration in the country as well as prospecting for groundwater resources. The Minerals Laboratory was established in 1929 to support the geological mapping and mineral exploration.

Since its establishment, the Survey has undergone various re-organizational administrative changes under different Ministries including Ministry of Mines and Commerce (1935 to 1949), Ministry of Commerce and Industry (1960 to 1961), Ministry of Industries, Mineral Resources and Power (1964 to 1966), Ministry of Water, Power and Mineral Resources (1978 to1981), Ministry of Minerals (1981 to 1984), Ministry of Energy and Minerals (1986 to 1990), Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals (1991 to 1996), Ministry of Energy and Minerals (1996 to7th October 2017) and Ministry of Minerals since October 2017 to present.

In 2005 the Geological Survey was transformed into a Government executive agency established under the Executive Agencies Act No 30 of 1997 and was officially launched as a Government Agency on 23 June 2006 under the name Geological Survey of Tanzania (GST).

In July 2017, the Government of Tanzania amended the Mining Act of 2010 through the Written Laws (Miscellaneous Amendments) Act, No. 7 of 2017. Through the amendment, new functions were initiated on top of the other functions of GST described by the Mining Act 2010. To capture the new/additional functions, the existing functions and organization structure of GST to was reviewed to enhance its capacity in order to deliver services efficiently and effectively.

The Geological Survey has made notable achievements since its establishment about eighty years ago. The achievements include:

  • 94 % of the entire country has been geologically mapped and published geological maps as quarter degree sheets (QDS) are available at various scales. This has generated basic geological and mineralogical data and information used by investors in the exploration activities.
  • Discovery of a substantial number of mineral occurrences some of which developed into world-class mines (eg. Kahama and Geita Gold Mines).
  • Increased contribution of the Mineral Sector to the country’s GDP from about 0.3 % in the 1980s to about 4.3 % at the turn of the century. The growth was facilitated by various economic policy changes by the Government during the late 1980s and the 1990s.
  • 100% of the entire country has low resolution airborne geophysical data at 1 km line spacing and 120m ground clearance.
  • 16% of the entire country has high resolution airborne geophysical data-(200m – 250m line spacing and ground clearance of 45m – 70m)
  • 19% of the entire country has geochemical data at varies sampling densities and sampling media.
  • Availability of modern laboratory equipment for chemical, mineralogical, geotechnical & mineral processing laboratory.
  • Availability of modern and reliable ICT infrastructure (fast internet, intranet, high storage capacity servers, e-mail, Public database web portal, website, fax, etc).
  • Availability of centralized and standardized modern Database Management System (Geological and Mineral Information System-GMIS)
  • Existence of up to date countrywide mineral occurrences database and its associated geological metadata which attracts further investment, hence broadening GST market and programs.
  • Existence Core and rock library & Geological Museum.
  • Existence of archive with a wide range of geoscientific information (geotechnical reports, geological, geophysical and geochemical data in digital and hard copies); Possession of modern field geological gears and equipment (vehicles, tents, generators, GPS, tough books etc).
  • Availability of Modern geophysical equipments and facilities.
Tanzania Census 2022